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What are different methods of filing

 The systematic process of arranging files and documents in proper order is known as the filing method. The main motive of filing is safety, fast retrieval and use of documents. There is a various method of filing which are maintained on the basis of nature, objectives, needs and financial or conditions. 

Methods of different methods of filing


Some of the common methods of filing is as follows:

Alphabetical filing method

The file in method on these files and letters are arranged according to the alphabet order as per dictionary system in drawer or cabinet is known as an alphabetical filing system. Under this method, the files are placed from left to right in rack or drawer in order of alphabets like A, B, C.... Z. For quick identification, the name of the person OR Institutions concerned with files are written on the tab of his folder. While writing the name, the sir name is written first and the other should be returned orderly. For example, the document related to the Ram Prasad Joshi is arranged as Joshi Ram Prasad. If any title name opposition is to be given, that should be shown at last inside the bracket. In this method, indexing and guide cards are managed in a drawer or cabinet to find out the required file. Telephone diary and dictionary are some examples of alphabetical pricing methods.

Advantages or merits of alphabetical filing

Following are the advantages of alphabetical filing:

  • This system is simple and easy to operate. A person having alphabetical knowledge can understand and operate it easily.
  • It is flexible because new papers and documents can be adjusted easily.
  • It is economical because separate indexing is not required.
  • It is equally important to large as well as a small organisation.
  • It is suitable for those organizations which keep the records according to the name of persons, firms, companies, etc.

Disadvantages or demerits of alphabetical filing

Following are the disadvantages of alphabetical filing.

  • This method is not convenient for organizations having a large number of files and documents.
  • It creates difficulty to find out documents having the same name.
  • The space required for different alphabets may not be sufficient to write details, which causes difficulty in future.
  • Miss spelling of the name may because of misfiling.
  • It cannot maintain secrecy because the name of the files is maintained on the tab which is visible.

Numerical filing method

The file in the method under which files and letters are arranged in a drawer or cabinet according to the numerical order is known as the numerical filing method. In this method, when the file is created, a certain number is returned like 1, 2, 3, 4, ... And so on instead of the alphabet. Every individual or organization is allotted a separate code number and files are preserve accordingly in the drawer or cabinet in numerical order. Index or guide cards are prepared for each individual file mentioning detail about the person or institution. Here, details include name, address, phone number, subject and other information along with file number. The following method is used in those organizations where number are more important rather than the alphabet. This method is commonly used in banks, hospitals, insurance companies, etc.

Advantages/merits of numerical filing

Following are the advantages of numerical filing

  • It is a flexible method. one can increase and decrease the number of files easily.
  • It is the second method of filing. So, sacred and confidential documents are also preserved on it.
  • Files are easily and quickly located as separate index cards are used.
  • There are fewer chances of missing files because it provides a separate number for each file.
  • It can hold a large number of files because it provides a separate number for is file.
  • It can hold a large number of files since the number is unlimited.

Disadvantages/demerits of numerical filing

Following are the disadvantages of numerical filing

  • It is a costly method of filing because it requires the print index for each guide card.
  • It consumes more time while searching required files and documents as it needs a separate index card.
  • It is difficult to understand and operate because it needs highly experienced and qualified manpower.
  • It is not applicable to small-scale organisms having a Limited number of documents.
  • It is not suitable for those offices which need a name other than a number.

Subject while filing method

The file in the method under which files and folders are arranged in the drawer for cabinet according to the subject of the document is called subject while filing method. Under this method, documents are classified into two different subjects and subject sad is created for its file. The files are related to different subjects can also be subdivided into alphabetical order. For example, petroleum products may be subdivided into petrol, diesel, kerosene, etc. For the quick identification of a particular subject, guide Guards or in there are also kept in front of drawer cabinet. This method of filing is more important for those officers whose subject is necessary the alphabet and numbers.

Advantages/merits of subject-wise filing

Following are the advantages of subject-wise filing

  • It is simple to use and easy to understand.
  • It provides the quick location of files with the help of Guide cards.
  • It is flexible as required files can be added and unnecessary files can be removed easily.
  • It accumulates all the matters concerned with the subject in one place which provide all the necessary information of a subject in one place.
  • It shows the reference because the subject is known

Disadvantages/ demerits of subject-wise filing

Following are the disadvantages of subject-wise filing

  • It is difficult to classify the subject and soft subjects of the documents having more objects in the same document.
  • It consumes more time to locate the document of a person or organization as documents are arranged in subject-wise order.
  • It requires a separate index or guide card due to which it is expensive.
  • It cannot maintain secrecy because it the detail of the subject is given in the files.
  • If two or more two subjects are given on the same documents, it is complex to divide the subject and sub-subject of the documents.

Geographical filing method

The file in the matter on which files and folders are arranged in drawer or cabinet according to the area of the geographical distribution of the places is known as geographical filing method. In this method, the files are arranged, based on the geographical regions like a continent, country, state etc. Under this method, the name of places is written in the file and arrange drawer or cabinet either alphabetical or numeric order. Files are classified into a number of small places if a place has several documents. 

Advantages/ merits of geographical filing method

Followings are the advantages of geographical filing

  • This method is easy to understand and use.
  • It is easy to locate the files with the provision of Guide cards.
  • It provides all the information of a particular user graphical reason in one place.
  • It is useful to the organization for the name of the places are important.
  • It is mostly useful to prepare and achieve geographical reports.

Disadvantages/ demerits of geographical filing

Following are the disadvantages of geographical filing

  • Difficult to arrange the files as it needs highly experience manpower having geographical knowledge.
  • It is highly expensive because various guide cards and drivers are required to arrange the files in this system.
  • It cannot maintain secrecy because the name of place and person is written on the tab of the file.
  • It is not suitable for our small organization to have a limited number of documents.
  • It takes more time because a grade card is essential for this system.
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